What is the Netezza Software Emulator?
Netezza is a data warehouse appliance from IBM. It’s a multi-million dollar investment, so for developers and proof-of-concept projects, an emulator is provided, which consists of 2 VMWare appliances. One is the ‘Host’, which is the front-end that applications talk to via JDBC / ODBC. The other is a ‘SPU’, which an emulated ‘snippet processing unit’. In a real Netezza appliance, these SPUs consist of a combination of storage and custom hardware ( FGPAs ). This hardware augments the processing that a CPU would perform in a traditional database server.
Why Convert this emulator to KVM / QEMU?
The VMWare offering is not a good option for my people:
- It’s built using a very old version of VMWare which doesn’t run on modern OSs
- It’s packaged as a Windows-only offering, making it of little use to serious developers
- It uses VMWare’s VIX, and API for controlling VMWare hosts, which seems non-funtional on 64bit Linux hosts
Besides this, VMWare is not an option for many because of licensing restrictions and lagging OS support. VMWare ( and VirtualBox for that matter ) drivers are typically only available for select versions of Linux kernels, and usually versions I stopped using years ago. So I set out to get the Netezza Emulator working in KVM / QEMU, a completely open-source virtualisation solution. This is important to people who take software licensing seriously. While home users can click the “sure, I’m just using this for evaluation purposes” button and forget about it, this approach is a little more precarious for developers who are clearly using the technology as an integral part of their daily work.
It took many days and much swearing, but it’s now working, and even better, rock solid. Here’s how I did it, and what I learned along the way.
How to convert the Netezza Software Emulator
Download Netezza Emulator and Preparation
Download the Netezza emulator from IBM. I can’t get a ‘clean’ link ( it’s a mile long ), but search for ‘netezza emulator download’ and it will be the 1st link ( titled ‘Requirements for the IBM Netezza Software Emulator’ ). You will have to be logged in with an IBM account to download it, from memory.
Extract the components of the download. If you can figure out how to do this without using Windows, go ahead. Otherwise you may need to install the emulator into a Windows box first. Either way, you’re after .vmdk files only. Get all of these. For the host, there will be a LOT. For the SPU, there are 5.
On your Linux box, create a folder called HOST and a folder called SPU. Put the .vmdk files in the relevent folder.
For the next step, you’ll have to have some packages installed. You can probably install the packages ‘qemu’ and ‘virt-manager’ and you’ll get all the rest of the dependencies.
Netezza Disk Image Conversion
Now we’ll convert the VMWare .vmdk disk images to the QCOW2 format. ‘cd’ into the HOST folder and run:
qemu-img convert -O qcow2 *.vmdk HOST.img
This will create a single image from the 91 or so .vmdk files. Next do the SPU images like this:
for I in *.vmdk
echo “converting $I …”
qemu-img convert -O qcow2 $I $I.qcow2
This will create 1 qcow2 image per .vmdk image. Now move all the .img files into 1 folder somewhere. We don’t need the HOST / SPU folders any more.
Now start up ‘virt-manager’. This is a GUI for configuring and managing various VMs. It seems to require ‘polkit’. If you’re running Gnome ( or probably KDE ), you’ll have a polkit process or whatever running already. If you’re running something else ( I’m running Enlightenment-0.19 ), you’ll have to start it manually like this:
Once you’re in virt-manager, click ‘Edit ==> Connection Details’. The 1st thing we’ll do here is make the disk images we created visible. Click the ‘storage’ tab. Click the ‘Add’ button in the bottom-left corner of the window. Navigate to where you put the .img files. This should add the folder you’ve selected to the ‘storage pool’. Alternatively, you could have located the default storage pool, and moved your .img files into it. Either way is fine.
Next, click the ‘virtual networks’ tab. Here we’re going to define the network that the Netezza Host and SPU virtual machines use to communicate over. Interestingly, this is also the network that your KVM host ( ie your linux box ) is going to have to use to communicate with the Netezza Host – more on this later. Click the ‘Add’ button, in the bottom-left corner. Name the network ‘nznet’. Complete the wizard, using the network 10.0.0.0/20 and disabling DHCP. The Netezza Host will run it’s own DHCP server, and things will not work well at all if you have 2 DHCP servers on this network.
Virtual Machine Setup
Now we’re finally ready to create the 2 Netezza VMs in KVM. Close the current ‘connections’ window, which should leave the original virt-manager window. Click the ‘Create New Virtual Machine’ button, in the top-left corner. Type HOST for the name, and select ‘Import existing disk image’.
Click ‘Browse’ to locate the Netezza Host disk image we converted ( and think yourself lucky we concatinated all the 91 images into 1 ). Select OS Type: Linux and Version: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Select your chosen memory & CPU count. I’m not sure how many CPUs these Netezza VMs require, but I gave mine 2 each. I recommend at least 2GB for both Netezza Host and SPU VMs. Finally, click the ‘customize configuration before install’ checkbox, and then click ‘Finish’.
You’ll be taken to a management screen for the VM. Click on SCSI Disk 1. Under ‘Advanced options’, select Disk Bus: Virtio. This will give you maximum disk performance. Luckily the Redhat base OS supports this device.
Next we’ll configure our 2 network devices. Click the 1st ‘NIC’. Select:
Source Device: Host Device eth0 : macvtap
Device model: Virtio
Source mode: VEPA
Note: if you’re using a wireless network device instead of wired, your device name might be something like wlan0 instead. However, also note that this ‘macvtap’ is a kind of bridged networking, and some wireless devices don’t supported bridged networking ( and virt-manager mightn’t even allow you to select your wireless ). If that’s the case, you’re out of luck. This will mean that other devices on your LAN won’t be able to connect to your Netezza box. Just select your eth0.
Now we’re going to add another network device. Click the ‘Add Hardware’ button in the bottom-left, select ‘Network’, and then select:
Host Device: Virtual Network ‘nznet’ : Isolated network, internal and host routing only
Device model: Virtio
That’s the end of the Netezza Host configuration You can now hit the ‘Begin Installation’ button in the top-left, and then power on the VM. If all is well, your Host should boot. Note that there seems to be a strange graphics corruption bug when switching between modes on bootup. Just close the Host window completely, then double-click on the Host VM again in virt-manager to re-open it. Now log into the Host ( root / netezza ). Your eth0 device will not have come up. Type:
This file provides a memory of eth devices to MAC addresses, and your new VM’s ethernet’s MAC addresses will not be the same as in the original VMWare images ( unless you made a point of copying them in ). After removing this file, reboot and log in again. You should now have an eth0 and eth1. eth0 should have an IP from your DHCP server ( assuming you have a DHCP server on your LAN ). eth1 should be 10.0.0.2. If you want to have a fixed IP for eth0, copy the MAC address and paste it into your DHCP’s configuration for fixed IP addresses.
At this point, you should be able to ssh into eth1 ( 10.0.0.2 ) from your KVM host ( ie your linux box ), and other computers on the network should be able to ssh into eth0 ( dhcp-provided address ), but your KVM host will not be able to reach the NZ Host’s eth0.
Now for the Netezza SPU. Repeat the same process as before, calling this VM ‘SPU’. There are a few differences in the SPU configuration:
- The SPU only has 1 ethernet device, and it’s on the nznet VPN. Choose device e1000 – the SPU doesn’t have Virtio drivers
- When configuring the disks, create them all as SATA disks
- Under ‘Boot Options’, you should have only ‘Network (PXE)’ selected.
Now, with your Host VM fully booted, power up the SPU VM. It should get an IP address from the Host’s DHCP server, and then should boot from the network. If at this point, the network boot is slow, or appears to get stuck, you have probably left on the DHCP server for the ‘nznet’ VPN.
Hopefully, your SPU will boot. However there are still issues to overcome. Now the SPU will try to register against the Host, but fail. This is because the topology of the disks has changed from when everything was hosted in VMWare. You can flush this issue out by doing a ‘reinitialisation’ on the Host. Log into the Host as root. Then type:
su – nz
Your SPU should reboot. If you’re lucky, when it comes back up, it will register against the Host, and you’ll be ready to go! If it doesn’t work, repeat these last 2 steps until it does. It seems to be quite flakey, unfortunately. I’m not sure what the problem is. Once it’s working, it appears to stay working, but it doesn’t like that first initialisation.
When you it working, shut down both. On the Host, log in as root, and do:
su – nz
I then always log into the SPU (root / fruitloop ) and ‘halt’ it. It won’t power down the VM; just do it manually.
Now clone both VMs, in case something goes wrong. In virt-manager, right-click each VM, and select ‘clone’.
Finally, you’re truly ready to get some work done. Enjoy
Networking ( aka I hate bridges )
For this tutorial, I used KVM’s macvtap networking to provide a network device on the LAN. Before going down this path, I tried to use bridged networking ( which I’ve successfully used before ), however there were just too many issues with it this time around. Firstly, my distribution ( Gentoo ) doesn’t have the same level of bridged networking support using systemd as using openrc. Secondly, bridged networking causes NetworkManager to freak out, and unfortunately some services depend on NetworkManager … which means they won’t come up properly once you start using bridged networking. Using KVM’s macvtap doesn’t have this problem, and doesn’t require hacking your network configuration or init scripts. It does have the bizzare issue that the KVM host can’t see the guest’s network device on the other side of the ‘bridge’ … however other devices on the network can. It’s a reasonable compromise.
Coming soon …
I’d like to get all this running in Xen next. I’ll try to document the process for other VM technologies as I get time.
Need Netezza Experts?
I’m currently working for Smart Associates. We do Netezza consulting, design, migrations, virtual DBA, and a lot more. Contact us via our corporate site for a talk about what we can do for you.
Please let me know if you have any suggestions. I did most of this post from memory – it’s been a while since I set it all up.